existed in present-day Iraq, Iran, Oman, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. When the region came under British influence in the nineteenth
century. Indian merchant communities flourished in a number of towns of the Gulf
countries. The Indians served as bankers, importers and exporters, customs farmers, agents for local merchants, government contractors, pearl-financiers, etc. and as such their contribution to the overall development of the Gulf countries has been significant.
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