countries, has obviously come to end. Similarly, the belief that economic growth together with a socially biased interventionist government would cement national cohesion, contribute to nation-building and, by the same token, strengthen democratic institutions, has been belied. Social inequality has everywhere been aggravated, as has social conflict. While a general process of political mobilization has set in, not least traditionally rather marginalized groups have become empowered. At the same time, the signs of crises multiply as exemplified in the Maoist movement in Nepal, the civil war in Sri Lanka, the struggle for self-determination in Northeastern India, or the corruption, violence and alienation in government and politics. While they manifest themselves first of all in the political sphere concerning the representativity and functioning of democracy, and not least the roll of political parties, they may go deeper indicating a systemic crisis touching upon the foundations of the socio-political order itself, as most evident in the case of Pakistan. Far from offering solutions, neoliberalism and Western-style democracy appear to be rather part of the problem. As a result, concepts of a modified Nehruvian state or Gandhian visions have gained hew currency.
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